Glossary of Key Terms - Module 3

Acadian forest - the most common forest type in the Maritimes

bolts - a short section of wood, as cut for shingles, shakes, rough dimension stock, stakes, pallet and crating material, and rotary cut veneer

breast height - height commonly used to measure tree diameter and age, 1.45m or 4.5 ft

biodiversity - the variety of plants and animals in an ecosystem

bole - stem of a tree once it is large enough to yield pulpwood or sawtimber

canopy - upper layer of a forest where most branches occur

carbon storage - the storage of carbon in organic material; affects the greenhouse effect

codominant - those trees whose crowns form the top of the tree canopy and receive full light from above, but very little from the sides

crop trees - best trees in the stand that are left to put on more growth

decomposition - the break down of complex organic material into simpler materials by other organisms

dominant - trees with crown extending above the general level of the canopy and receiving full light from above and from the side

ecosystem - an interrelated and interdependent community of plants and animals in their habitats

epicormic shoots - shoots that develop from buds located near the bottom of a tree often in response to disease, insects, or opening up of a stand

even-aged - a forest stand in which relatively small age differences (10 to 20 yr) exist between individual trees

flora and fauna - plant and animal species found in one or more regions

habitat - place where an animal lives

intermediate - trees growing in the shade of others, receiving light only from above

juvenile wood - inner layer of wood surrounding the pith formed when the tree was young; usually has smaller cells

land capability - see site capability

organic layer - layer of needles and leaves on top of the soil

rotation - the age at which a stand is ready for harvest; can be based on maturity, growth, value, or nutrient capital

seed bank - seeds stored in the soil that can germinate at a later date

shade tolerance - the capacity of a tree or plant species to develop and grow in the shade of, and in competition with, other trees, or plants

site capability - ability of site or soil to grow trees

specific gravity - the ratio of the weight of wood over the weight of water of the same volume

spring wood - the portion of the annual layer that is formed during the early part of the growing season; it is usually less dense and weaker mechanically than summer wood (also called early wood)

sprouts - hardwood saplings that originate from dormant buds on tree stumps

stand - a community of trees sufficiently uniform in species, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable as a group from the forest or other growth on the area

stocking - a measure of area occupied by tree cover

structural diversity - variety of heights in a stand or ecosystem

summerwood - the portion of the annual layer that is formed during the latter part of the growing season after the early wood formation has ceased (also called latewood)

suppressed - trees growing completely in the shade of other trees, receiving only a little wood from above; the same age as the taller trees

understory - trees or other plants growing close to the ground under taller trees; usually younger than the taller trees

uneven-aged - stands with at least 3 age classes of trees ( ie 20 , 40 and 60 years)