Module 11: Roads and Trails: Planning it Right from the Start

Appendix C - Glossary of Terms

Abutment: A bridge foundation

Break up: The period in late winter/early spring when the frost leaves the ground and the road is soft

Cofferdam: A water tight area built in a stream and pumped dry to prevent erosion and silt entering stream while building the bridge abutments and other structures

Cross culvert: A culvert that allows the water to flow under the road from the high side to the low side

Crown: The slope of a road (cross section view) which is slightly higher in the centre to direct water off the road

Embankment: The ditch slope that forms the side of the road

Erosion: The movement of soil particles by the action of water, wind or temperature

Grade: The degree of rise or fall in slope of a road, land or watercourse. A gentle grade would be around 5%. This means a 5 m of rise over 100 metres of horizontal distance. A much steeper grade would be 30% or a 30 m rise over 100 m.

Grubbing: The initial removal and disposal of stumps, slash, rocks and other materials along the route where the road will be built.

Landing: A clear, level roadside area where harvested wood is piled until it is picked up by a tractor trailer

No-grub zone: An area of no grubbing for 30 m on each side of a watercourse

Porter: A machine with a flat bed and grapple used to load and transport 2-4 cord of wood from the cutting site to the landing

Skidder: A harvesting machine with big tires and steel cable winches used to drag whole logs from the cutting site to the landing.

Snowfence: A line of small softwoods or a mesh net along an exposed section of road used to catch snow before it builds up on the road

Stringers: Timbers laid between and on top of abutments on a bridge.

Stumpage rate: The rate per cord paid to a landowner or woodseller by the forestry contractor

Take-off ditch: A ditch that diverts water from a road ditch and into a vegetated, settling area

Waterbar: A small groove in a road or trail surface used to divert water running down the surface into a ditch and away from the road or trail

Watercourse: The bed and shore of every river, stream, lake, creek, pond, spring, lagoon, or other natural water body and all ground water

Wetland: Land that is saturated or covered by water long enough to promote wetland processes and plant and animal life adapted to a wet habitat.