Module 1: Introduction to Silviculture

Silvics of Jack Pine

(Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

Common names:
- princess pine, scrub pine, grey pine

Field identification aids:
- needles are light yellow-green, two per cluster forming a “V”
- cones point toward end of branch
- cones are strongly curved
- retains cones for years, even after tree is cut
- dead branches remain on tree giving it a scraggy appearance

Average mature tree:
- 50 to 60 years old
- 12 m to 20 m (40' to 67') tall
- 20 cm to 30 cm (8" to 12") in diameter at breast height

Maximum life span:
- 150 years

Shade Tolerance:
- intolerant

- moderately deep and wide-spreading
- produces a tap root on deep porous soils

- windfirm, but prone to mechanical breakage

- reproduces by seed
- will begin to produce seed as early as 10 years with full production at 40 years

Growing sites:
- range from dry to poorly-drained soils
- best growth is on sandy, well-drained soils

Associated species:
- black spruce, white birch and aspen
- can be found in pure stands

Principal damaging agents:
- porcupines

- jack pine comprises less than 1% of the merchantable volume in Nova Scotia
- generally used for railway ties, poles and fuelwood
- often establishes after a fire, particularly on poor sites

Quick ID:
Jack pine is the only native pine with two short needles. It also has strongly curved cones


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